Article-370 Jammu Kashmir

Categories:
article 370
  • Introduction
    • According to the constitution of India, Article 370 provides certain provision to the state of Jammu and Kashmir granting it special autonomy.
    • The article says that the provision of Article 238, which was omitted from the Constitution in 1956 when Indian States were reorganized, shall not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • B.R. Ambedkar, the principal drafter of the Indian Constitution, had refused to draft Article 370.
    • In 1949, the then prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru had directed Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah to consult Ambedkar (Then law minister) to prepare the draft of a suitable article to be included in the constitution.
    • Except for defence, foreign affairs and communication, all other law passed by Indian parliament need to be passed by Indian Parliament need to be passed by the state government before they are made applicable. This was specified in the Instrument of Accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh when the agreed to join the Union of India in 1947, instead of going with Pakistan.
    • As a result of this, the citizens of Jammu and Kashmir are governed by state-specific laws which come under the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, instead of those for the rest of India.
    • This article, along with Article 5 that defines of contours of jurisdiction of Indian Parliament regarding lawmaking for the state, cannot be amended.
    • The 1952 Delhi Agreement also specified that the state should have its own flag in addition to the Union flag and they should have the same status.
    • This arrangement was further ratified by the 1974 agreement between the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the then Jammu and Kashmir Prime Minister Sheikh Abdulla (appointed by Hari Singh).
    • It was agreed that head of state called Sadar-i-Riyasat (or the Prime Minister) was to be elected by the state legislature.
    • The agreement apposed imposition of Article 352, empowering the president to proclaim general emergency in the state.

     

    Detail Explanation

    • Article 370 of the Indian constitution deals with the special status given to the states of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • It provides a fairly high degree of autonomy to the state, enables the state to have its own constitution (unique in an Indian context) which permits the state to give some special privileges to its “Permanent residents”.
    • One such special privilege is that only a permanent resident is that only a permanent resident can land in the state and citizens from other Indian state face some restrictions.

     

    What is Article – 370

    • Jammu and Kashmir’s citizens have dual citizenship.
    • Jammu and Kashmir’s national flag is different.
    • Jammu and Kashmir’s legislative assembly’s term is 6 years whereas its 5 years for the States of India.
    • The orders of the Supreme Court of India are not valid in Jammu – Kashmir.
    • Parliament of India may make laws in extremely limited areas in terms of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • In Jammu – Kashmir, if a woman marries a person of any other States of India, citizenship to the female ends.
    • If a woman marries a man in other Indian States, She loses her citizenship, whereas if any woman marries a Pakistani, She will be entitled to have a citizenship of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Because of Section 370, RTI does not apply in Kashmir, RTE is not implemented and CBI-CAG does not apply. Indian laws are not applicable.
    • Shariat law is applicable to women in Kashmir.
    • There are no rights to panchayats in Kashmir minorities in Kashmir (Hindu-Sikh) does not get 16% reservation.
    • Due of section 370, Outsiders cannot own land in Kashmir.
    • Indian parliament doesn’t have any major rights over Kashmir it can only control issues of defence international relations and communication.

     

    History of Article – 370

    • At the time of independence it was argued that Kashmir was not ripe enough for integration and felt a need to keep it exempted from the basic fundamental right. This was the main reason for the insertion of Article 370.
    • The provision was drafted in 1947 by Sheikh Abdullah, who had by then been appointed Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir by Maharaja Hari Singh and Jawahar Lal Nehru.
    • Sheikh Abdullah had argued that Article 370 should not be placed under temporary provisions of the constitution. He wanted, ‘Iron clad Autonomy’ for the state, which centre didn’t comply with.

     

    Provision of Article – 370

    • Under Article 370, the centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state. It can declare emergency in the state only in case of war or external aggression.
    • The Union government can therefore not declare emergency on grounds of internal disturbance or imminent danger unless it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the state government.

     

    Temporary Provision – The article come with a tag that said it was temporary giving hope that the state would also be integrated with time, however the day sadly has not yet come. The main clause for repealing this article was when there would be real peace and also when the people of the state approved of this arrangement.

     

    Special Provision – Along with Article 35A of the Indian constitution, it allows the state to prefer the Jammu and Kashmir “Citizens” for.

    • Employment under the state government.
    • Acquisition of immovable property in the state.
    • Settlement in the state.
    • Right to scholarships and such other form of aid as states government may provide.

     

    Pros & Cons

    Pros: –

    • The major advantages which residents of Jammu and Kashmir enjoys, is that no outsider is allowed to purchase land in Jammu and Kashmir. This is a big advantage as is protects lands of peoples from outsiders like rich businessman.
    • It’s not easy for outsider to operate their business here. This helps local residents in making more profit. It also reduces competition.
    • It has contained population blast in Jammu and Kashmir. Except the city of Jammu. There is very less population in other area.
    • It has contained prices of real estate. If article 370 is removed then the prices of property will go very high.

     

    Cons: –

    • Lack of Medical facilities. No Single private hospital is there in Jammu which includes adjoining districts.
    • Terrorism in state is because of 370 and because of Pakistan’s claim over Kashmir.
    • Lack of basic modern facilities like high speed internet, 24 hours electricity, 24 hours water supply.
    • Less competition makes the progress of students slow and dull.
    • No opportunity for state student’s to appear in other state exams.
    • No industrial sector available.
    • Jammu is always ignored in comparison to Kashmir just because it’s an international issue.
    • It has hindered the progress of our state to a large extent.
    • Corruption is much more in Jammu and Kashmir then from others because of special status and laws.
    • Only Muslim can become chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir, no Hindu can become CM of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • It has reduced the participation of non Muslim community in politics and other spheres.
    • Education has suffered a lot due to this.
    • Less GDP as well as revenue.
    • Less jobs and unemployment are the major problems due to this article.
    • Lacks of control of Government of India and their policies on our state.

     

    The Repealing of the Article – 370

    • The Article states under the clause 3 that the president may declare this article shall cease to be operative by public notification after recommendation of the constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir and is willing to recommend its revocation.

     

    Gender Bias

    • Many claim to have a negative through about the Article 370 as it disqualifies women from the state of property rights.
    • However it is less known that the article itself was gender neutral but the definition of permanent residents in the State constitution-based on the notifications issued in April 1927 and June 1932 during the Maharajah’s rule was thought to be discriminatory.

     

    Some Kay Points

    • Article 370 was eventually written by Gopalaswami Ayyangar. This article gives special status and autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Because of Article 370, the Indian Parliament cannot increase or reduce the borders of the state in any way and the state is exempted from the complete applicability of the Constitution of India. The state is permitted to have its own constitution.
    • Central legislative powers over the state are reduced to just three subjects of defence, foreign affairs and communications.
    • Other constitution provision of the central Government is applicable in the only if the State Government gives nod to it.
    • The Article 370 could be abrogated or amended only if the State’s constituent Assembly makes recommendation for its.

     

INDIA-USA Relations

Categories:
India USA Relations
  1. a) Visa dispute
  • In March 2016, India dragged the US to WTO’s dispute settlement body against the latter’s measures imposing increased fees on certain applicants for L-1 and H-1B visa categories.
  • India has stated that the move would impact Indian IT professionals.
  • India has alleged that the US is violating its obligations under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) as well as the GATS Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services, to not discriminate against or between non-US service providers.

Congressional Research Service (CRS) report

  • A Congressional report has warned American lawmakers that if visa dispute between India and US moves to formal settlement phase, it could possibly result in WTO-authorised trade retaliation against the U.S.
  • Report said India contends, among other things, that the 2010 and 2015 fee increases do not comply with “most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment” under the GATS.

Protectionist measures

  • In its analysis, CRS noted that the petition fees increases mandated by the 2010 and 2015 acts are “arguably protectionist” because they “may exceed” the government’s cost in processing a visa applicant.
  • It also could be a punitive measure targeting certain employers perceived by some Members of Congress as abusers of the foreign worker visas.

 

  1. b) Defence cooperation
  • The U.S Congress is planning to pass the National Defence Authorisation Act 2017 The draft in this regard was recently released.

Background

  • NDAA seeks executive action to “recognise India’s status as a major defence partner of the United States.”
  • The U.S has already recognised India as a “major defence partner” in June, during Prime Minister Modi’s visit, but the implications of it remains undefined.

NDAA 2017 on India-US defence ties

  • It mandates to “designate an individual within the executive branch who has experience in defense acquisition and technology” to ensure the success of bilateral defence ties and “to help resolve remaining issues impeding” them.
  • It also calls for “strengthening the effectiveness of the U.S.-India Defence Trade and Technology Initiative and the durability of the Department of Defence’s “India Rapid Reaction Cell,” a special unit that reviews ties with India.
  • “Major Defence Partner” is based on the concept of the US treating India as its closest ally and partner for the purpose of technology transfer.
  • Both sides reviewed the progress in defence ties in recent years, and welcomed the progress achieved under the Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) intended to promote opportunities for co-production and co-development of weapon systems and platforms.
  • In the past two years, some major agreements were signed:
  1.   a) The Defence Framework Agreement in 2015, which laid a blueprint for collaboration between the defence establishments
  2.   b) The logistics support agreement Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA).

 1.2 HEART OF ASIA (HOA) CONFERENCE

Why in News?

  • Recently, India hosted the 6th Ministerial Conference of Heart of Asia (HoA) in Amritsar.

Amritsar Declaration: Key Highlights

  • It called for immediate elimination of terrorism to help the war-ravaged country in its political and economic transition.
  • State-sponsored terrorism was identified as a key challenge and members agreed upon a concerted effort to dismantle all kinds of terrorism.
  • Members reiterated their belief in principles of sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, sovereign equality of nations as enshrined in the United Nations Charter.
  • Members expressed their commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Right.
  • Members called up for leveraging the cultural heritage of the region to drive economic and social development.
  • Members consented on eliminating non-tariff barriers to trade.
  • Members concerned about the increase in production and cultivation of opium in Afghanistan, the volume of drug trafficking and demand in the HoA Region and beyond.

SOUTH CHINA SEA ISSUE

Categories: Tags:
South China Sea
  • What is its history?
  • Xia and Ham dynasty records – These records are 2000-4000 year old, China has laid to claim on the SCS on the basis of these records.
  • Nine dash line (1947) – drawn by Chinese government to claim South China Sea.
  • UNCLOS – United Nations convention on the law of the sea. UNCLOS III [United Nations conference on the law of sea] – (1973-82) – distributes territorial waters among nations.
  • 21st century developments – Became important because of trade routes, and oil. All countries wanted a share in it. China Claims it more.

 

  • What is the argument about?
  • Territory and sovereignty – China wants the nine dash line implemented. All other countries want china to withdraw from militarizing the area heavily.
  • Spratly and Paracel – These are two important group of island. All the fighting countries want one or another part of it.

 

Who claims what?

  • China – Claims all territory inside the nine dash line but also the entire South China Sea. It has not made its demands very clear.
  • Vietnam – disputes China’s historical claim and says that they were ruling over both spratley and paracel island since 17th
  • Philippines – wants spratley islands as they are close to them along with Scarborough Island.
  • Malaysia – Claims territorial waters around its boundary in the South China Sea and some islands in the spritley group.
  • Brunei – Only South China Sea near its boundary.

 

  • Who has built what?
  • Vietnam – Taiwan and the Philippines – Island building in the South China Sea, and contraction on existing island has been going on for decades, by Vietnam and the Philippines. Vietnam, Taiwan and the Philippines have all stationed military force on at least some of their islands.
  • China – Entered late but building fast. In the last 18 months, china has reportedly more new island surface them all other nations have contructed throughout history. Only china possesses enough modern military vessels to protest its claims.

 

  • Why china wants it?
  • Dominate major trade route for its imported oil flow.
  • Deny access to foreign military or trade shipments whenever they want. Especially the us.
  • Floor of South China Sea may contain large oil and natural gas reserves.

 

  • What is the US response?
  • Did not oppose previous building activities of other nations like Vietnam or Philippines. But is hell bent against china’s activities there.
  • Freedom of navigation mission – by using aircraft and naval vessels close to Chinese Bases.
  • Also supporting regional allies like Vietnam and Philippines with technology and military hardware to boost their power.

 

  • How is India affected
  • In latest news, the permanent court of Arbitration (PCA) ruled against China’s claims over South China Sea.
  • This means India can now move naval warships through the region without informing the chinese.

 

  • How Should India react
  • Under the Act East policy of the BJP government, India has expanded its role at the maritime navigation, particularly in South East Asia.
  • Hence it can exercise the freedom of navigation principle in international water. This will enhance India’s Credibility and reputation as a maritime power in the re

Triple Talaq

Categories: Tags:
Triple Talaq

Historical Background

  • The main issue confronting judiciary in terms of “Triple Talaq” is the Shayara Bano case.
  • This matter comes 30 years after the controversial Shah Bano maintenance case, which resulted in parliament passing a law to override a Supreme Court verdict giving a divorced Muslim woman a highes maintenance than what she got under personal laws.

 

What is the issue?

  • The 35 year old Shyaro Bano is using her case as a plank to challenge.
  • Triple Talaq (Talaq-e-bidat)
  • Polygamy and
  • Nikah halala

 

Understanding the issue

  • She had sought equality before law and protection against discrimination on the basis of her gender and religion.
  • In her petition. She has challenged ‘instantaneous triple talaq’ and not triple talaq itself which is allowed by the quran as long as the three utterances are spread over 90 days.

 

What is Nikah Halala?

  • It is a practice where:
  • Divorced women
  • In case they want to go back to their husbands.
  • Have to consummate a second marriage.

 

What is triple Talaq?

  • In the talaq or divorce is situation when the husband peonounces the phrase:
  • “I divorce you” to his wife.
  • A man may divorce his wife three times, taking her back after the first two (reconciling).

 

Forms of giving talaq

  • Triple talaq case is about the right of muslim women in India and women in general.
  • The debate can be extended as instant triple talaq has been banned in most Islamic countries.
  • The archaic practice of triple talaq place in many forms – over phone by sending letter, speed post, by utter talaq three times in one go, by writing it on the wall of the house and not specifically informing the spouse.

 

Is it being misused?

  • Nowadays mostly, the instantaneous triple talaq is misused by the husband to divorce his existing wife with another woman and subsequently marry her.
  • Threat of triple talaq always hangs over the heads of women husband use talaq as a threat to express their.
  • Displeasure
  • Frustration or
  • Simply to get his wife to do what he wants.

 

  • This blatant misuse to triple talaq become a tool for domestic violence and abuse against muslim in their homes.
  • Husbands often do not give the maintenance asked for, by their wives, who have no other means to support themselves if they were divorced suddenly.

 

Earlier cases regarding triple talaq

  • There have been PILs filed by NGOs and individuals in the Supreme Court but those didn’t stand as they weren’t field by:
  • An affected party (divorced women) or
  • Because they pleaded that Uniform civil code be introduced.
  • Shayara’s is first such case where a muslim woman has challenged a personal practice citing fundamental right guaranteed by the Indian constitution.

 

Personal laws regarding marriage

  • The muslim personal law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937, allows Indian muslims to be governed by the Shariat.
  • It’s lack of codification has legally allowed community leaders to held the practices as sacrosanct.
  • The Dissolution of muslim marriages Act, 1939 odifies-“a woman’s right to seek divorce by approaching the court.”
  • Progressive laws like the Dissolution of muslim marriages Act, 1939 and the muslim woman (protection of right on Divorce) Act, 1986 had not been able to wean the community away from discrimination shown to muslim women.

 

Bhartiya Muslim Mahila Andolan (BMMA)

  • The BMMA’s argument is that triple talaq and nikah halala to be struck down as being un-Islamic an antithetical to Islam itself.
  • Moman’s right groups contended that courts could adjudicate under Article 13 of the constitution if the shariat law was found to be “inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental right” of muslim women.
  • Countering this appeal the Muslim religious bodies said a court could not adjudicate on muslim personal laws.

 

The Hindu Personal laws Angle

  • The argument in favour of reform is that the hindu have had to codify and reform laws. This was done under which the Hindu Right was codified on the insistence of prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru proposed it in the 1950s and the then law Minister. Dr. B.r. Ambedkar had to do it.
  • Just like it was done for hindu law why then should muslims be allowed to get away without similar codifications and laws.

 

Why so much of noise regarding this issue now?

  • In today’s age of connectivity:
  • The Ouran and various interpretations are available on mobile phones.
  • Muslim women have more exposure.
  • Literacy rates of women have risen and
  • Their participation in the workforce has increased.

 

  • Specifically in the current Shayaro Bano matter the disagreement is between:
  • Those who see Islamic law itself was opposed to the idea of equality enshrined in the constitution and
  • Those who argue that triple talaq and nikah halala are not Islamic.

 

  • The Special Marriages Act exists for those for whom:
  • Faith is not central to companionship or
  • for those who marry across faith or
  • even caste
  • These practices are a violation of article 14,15,21,25.

 

Major Landmark cases governing the debate of Shah Bano case.

 

Damiel Latifi V/s Union of India, 2001.

  • It was held in this case that liability of muslim husband to his divorced wife to pay maintenance is not confined to iddat period.
  • According to the SC, a divorce Muslim woman who has not remarried and who is not able to maintain herself after iddat period can proceed against her relatives who are liable to maintain her in proportion to the properties which they inherit on her death.

 

Shamim Ara V/s State of U.P

  • Supreme Court held in this case that the requirement of a valid talaq are:
  • That the talaq must be for a reasonable cause.
  • It must be preceded by attempts of reconciliation between the husband and wife by two arbiters:
  • One chosen by the wife from her family and
  • The other by the husband from his family.
  • If their attempts fail, talaq can be affected.

 

Constitutional Angle – Uniform Civil Code

  • Uniform Civil code is the proposal to replace the personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set governing every citizen.
  • These laws are distinguished from public law and cover marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption and maintenance.
  • Article 44 of the Directive principles in India sets its implementation as duty of the State. Whether it will be implemented in future remains to be seen as it is an issue comprising of many complex issues of religious rights, diversity, primacy of equality of laws over religious rights and can affect the vote bank of each and every political party.

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND BIOSPHERE RESERVE

Categories: Tags:
biosphere reserve

NATIONAL PARKS, WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND BIOSPHERE RESERVE

 

  • Protected Area Network in India:
  • Sanctuary: The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted.
  • National Park: The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment, like that of a sanctuary. Unlike a sanctuary, where certain rights can be allowed, in a National Park, no right are allowed. No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while in a Sanctuary, the chief wildlife warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.

National Park = 1.2%

Wildlife Sanctuary = 3.58%

  • Biosphere Reserves are the biggest entity among the three.
  • The level of restriction in the increasing order is Biosphere Reserves > Wildlife Sanctuaries > National Parks.

 

  1. Bandhavgarh National Park
  • Located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968, with an area of 105 km2
  • The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and katni and totals 437 km2
  • The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is one of the highest known in India.

 

  1. Bandipur National Park
  • Located in the south Indian state of Karnataka. It was once a private humting reserve for the maharaja of the kingdom of mysore.
  • The park an area of 87 km2, protecting several species of India`s endangered wildlife.
  • Park features leopards, elephants, sloth bears, wild boars and wild dogs.

 

  1. Blackbuck National Park
  • Blackbuck National Park at velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat state, India.
  • It is spread over an area of 34.08 km2, which was primarily a “vidi” (grass land) of the maharaja of the princely state of Bhavnagar.
  • The park primarily includes Blackbuck, wolves, houbara bustard, hyenar and lesser flaricans with forces, jackals and jungle cats as the main carniores species.

 

  1. Corbett National Park
  • Situated in kumaon – Uttarakhand, Corbett National park comprises 520.8km2 area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions and others.
  • The park acts as a protected area for the endangered Bengal tiger of India.
  • Pioneer is ecotourism, Corbett National Park has 25 reptile species, 580 bird species, 50 species of mamnals and 110 tree species. It was also the first park to launch a project tiger conservation initative.

 

  1. Keoladeo National park
  • This is another world heritage site situated in Bharatpur region of Rajasthan
  • It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971
  • It is famous fear the various species of birds and migratory bird like Siberian ranes.

Note:- world heritage site decide by (UNESCO) head quarter (paries).

  1. Gir National Park
  • The Gir Forest National Park and wildlife sanctuary established in 1965, with a total area of 1412 km2 In Gujarat
  • It is the sole home of the Asiatic lions and is considered to be one of the most important protected areas in asia duo to its supported species.
  • The count of 2,375 distinct fauna species of Gir includes about 38 species of mammals, around 300 species of birds and around 37 species of reptiles.

 

  1. Hemis National Park
  • Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park in the eastern Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India
  • Hemi is a 4,400 km2 park and is presently the largest national park is south Asia
  • The park is home to a viable breeding population of about 200 snow leopards, especially in the Rumbak catchment area.

 

  1. Kaziranga National park
  • Kaziranga national park is located in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India.
  • A world heritage site, the 430 km2 park hosts two – thirds of the world`s Great one horned rhinocerses.
  • Kaziranga is recognized as an important Bird area by Birdlife international for conservation of avifaunal species.

 

  1. Nagar – hole National Park
  • Nagarhole national park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National park), is a national park located in kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in south India. This park was declared the thirty seventh project tiger reserve in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

 

  1. Ranthambore National Park
  • Ranthambore national park is situated is Sawai Madhopur district of south eastern Rajasthan.
  • National park area: 275 km2 392 km2 including buffer zone
  • Besides tigers, the reserve has thriving bird population with more than 270 different species of bird here.

 

  1. Simlipal National Park

 

  • SimlipalNational Park is a national park and an elephant reserve situated in the mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Orissa.
  • The park is a treasure house of 1076 species of plants belonging to 102 families 96 species of orchids have also been identified here.

 

  1. Sunderbans National Park

 

  • The sunderbans national park (1,330.12 km2) is a national park, tiger reserve and a biosphere reserve in India. It is located at south 24 parganas west Bengal India.
  • The mangrove vegetation of sundarbans consists of 64 plant species
  • The sundarbans forest in home to more than 400 tigers, the royal Bengal tigers have developed a unique characteristic of sumining in the saline waters, and are famous for their men eating tandencies.

 

  1. Periyar National Park
  • Situated on the Western Ghats, and touching the borders of Tamil Nadu, this national park in Kerala.
  • This one is also a project Tiger Reserve of the Country, and also offer jeep safaris for its tourists.
  • Spaning over 350 sq. Km. Periyar National Park is known for encompassing two majestic mammals Elephants and Tiger.
  • Tourists can enjoy rich flora and Fuuna of the park by taking boat cruise over the picturesque periyar lake.

 

  1. Valley of Flowers

 

  • Valley of flowers National Park is an Indian National Park, located is west Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand.
  • Spanning over an area of 87.5 KMs, the valley of Flower was declared a National Park in the year 1982. This Reserve is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserve Since 2004.
  • It is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora. This richly diverse are is also home to rare endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, Musk deer, brown bear, red fox and blue sheep.

 

  1. Manas Sanctuary, Barpeta (Assam)

One-horned rhinoceros, gaur, elephant, wild buffalo.

 

  1. Namdapha Sanctuary – Tirap (Ar. Pradesh)

Elephant, tiger, panther, wild buffalo.

 

  1. Pachinarhi Sanctuary – Hoshangabad (M.P)

Barking deer, Bison, bear, tiger.

 

  1. Chandraprabha Sanctuary, Varanasi (UP)

Tiger, Panther, Sambar, Sloth bear, Peafowl.

 

  1. Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Ramn of Kutchch. (Guj)

Wild ass, wolf, nilgai, Chinkara

 

  1. Bhimbandh Sanctuary, Monghyr (Bihar)

Leopard, tiger, wild boar, wolf.

 

  1. Dudhwa National Park, Lakhimpur Kheri (U.P)

Barking deer, Chital, Sloth bear, tiger, Panther.

 

  1. Hazaribagh Sanctuary, Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)

Chital, Niglai, Sambar, Tiger

 

  1. Silent valley National Park (Kerala)

Lion – Tailed Macaque

 

  1. Ghandhi Sagar Sanctuary, Mandsaur (M.P)

Barking deer, Chinkara, Chital.

 

  1. Tal Chapar National Park, Churu, Rajasthan

Black – buck

 

  1. Sariska National Park – Alwar – Rajasthan

Tiger, Crocodiles, Nilgai, Chital, Chausingha

 

  1. Kanha National Park
  • Kanha is a popular Tiger Reserve of India located in Madhya Pradesh was created in 1974 under Project Tiger.
  • In two districts Mandla and Balaghat Kanha National Park houses the largest population of Tigers in India.
  • With brilliant flora and forest area, this park is famous for its sloth bear, leopard wild dog and of course the Bengal tiger.
  • This was the park that the central India Barasingha, also known as the hard ground barasingha, was brought back from the virtual edge of extinction.
  • The lush Sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha provided inspiration to Rudyard kipling for this famous novel “Jungle Book”.

 

  1. Great Himalayan National Park (UNESCO)

Himanchal Pradesh

Blue Sheep, Snow leopard, Musk Deer.

 

  1. Rajaji National Park

Uttarakhand (Elephants, Tigers)

 

  1. Keibul Lamjao National Park

Manipur

Only floating park in the world, famous for sangai of Dancing Durs.

 

  1. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

Kerala – Tiger

 

  1. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Kerala – Tiger

 

  1. Dachigam National Park

J & K = Hangal/Kashmiri Stag

 

  1. Mouling National Park

Arunachal Pradesh = Red Panda

 

  1. Namdapha National Park

Arunachal Pradesh (Red Giant flying squirrel)

 

  1. Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh = Tiger

           

  1. Betla National Park

Jharkhand = bison, elephant, tiger, leopard.

 

  1. Palamu National Park

Jharkhand = Tiger

 

  1. Daima Wildlife Sanctuary

Jharkhand = Elephants

 

  1. Indravati National Park

Chhattisgarh = Tiger & wild Buffalo

 

  1. Nagarjuma National Park

Andhra Pradesh = Tiger

 

  1. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary

Goa

 

  1. Banerghatta National Park

Karnataka – Tiger

 

  1. Chandra Prabha National Park

UttarParadesh

 

  1. Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary

Rann of Kutchh – Wild Ass

 

BIOSPHERE RESERVES

 

Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.

 

The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserve of India which protect larger area of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or Preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.

 

Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions and their ways of life.

 

  1. 2008 –           Great Rann of Kutch            –           Gujarat
  2. 1989 –           Gulf of Mannar                     –           Tamil Nadu
  3. 1989 –           Sundarbans                           –           West Bengal
  4. 2009 –           Cold Desert                           –           Himachal Pradesh
  5. 1988 –           Nanda Devi                           –           Uttarakhand
  6. 1986 –           Nilgiri Biosphere                  –           Tamil Nadu Kerala &

Karnataka

  1. 1998 –           Dihang – Dibang                  –           Arunachal Pradesh
  2. 1999 –           Pachmarhi Biosphere          –           Madhya Pradesh

Reserve

  1. 2010 –           Seshalam Hills                      –           Andra Pradesh
  2. 1994 –           Simlipal                                 –           Odisha
  3. 2005 –           Achanakamar                        –           Madhya Pradesh

Amar Kantak                                                                        Chhattisgarh

  1. 1989 –           Manas                                                –           Assam
  2. 2000             –           Khangchendzonga               –           Sikkim
  3. 2001 –           Agasthyamalai                      –           Kerala Tamil Nadu
  4. 1989 –           Great Nicobar                      –            Andanan& Nicobar

biosphere Reserve

  1. 1988 –           Nakrek                                   –           Meghalaya
  2. 1997 –           Dibru-Saikhowa                   –           Assam
  3. 2011 –           Panna                                     –           Madhya Pradesh

 

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary

 

The famous Bharatpur Bird sanctuary also known as keoladea Ghana National Park is situated in Rajasthan.

 

Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Sultanpur bird sanctuary is home for several colorful winged migratory species, located at Gurgaon district of Haryana.

 

Ranganthittu Bird sanctuary

Situated near to the banks of the Kaveri river in Karnataka.

 

Kumarakon Bird Sanctuary

Situated at in land of attraction kerala, near to the famous Vembanad lake. It offers a home to a large number of migratory bird like flycatcher, Teal, Siberian Stock, Crane, Parrots and wood Beetle.

 

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

The vedanthangal bird sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, Situated in Tamil Nadu.

 

Kaundiya Bird Sanctuary

Near chittor in Andhra Pradesh.

Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary

Located near puri in Orissa. Chilka lake serves as a bird sanctuary and is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds in India.

 

Mayani Bird Sanctuary

Situated in Satara district of Maharashtra. Many migratory birds pass through the area, such as flamingos from Siberia come in large numbers.

 

Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat

Largest wetland bird sanctuary in Gujarat, and one on the largest in India, spot birds like flamingos, pelicans, spoonbills, Avocets, coots, Pintails.

One Belt One Road

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one belt one road

S.R.E.B – Silk Road Economic Belt (Overland)

M.S.R – 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Sea

 

AIM Of OBOR

Connectivity and cooperation

People’s Republic of China with Eurasia

 

Middle East, Africa, Europe

 

Via the landlocked central Asian and littoral south east asia nations.

 

What is it made of?

Highways, overland Rail router, Ports, Gas Pipelines, other infrastructure.

(Infrastructure is just a part of OROB)

 

Trains Running Already from China

Duisbury Germany Madrid – Spain

Tehran – Iran

 

Aims stated by China

Historical Heritage – Silk route

 

Cultural rejuvenation – people to people

Trade and economic co-operation

Standardized and linked trade facilities financial integration.

 

Where will the money come from?

 

Asian infrastructure investment Bank AIIB

 

India Member

 

China Development Bank – CDB

Silk Road Fund

NDB – BRICS – India member

Deals with PANTNER NATIONS

Why China needs OROB?

  • Energy Needs
  • Regional Disparities – South and eastern China laggin behind.
  • Manufacturing Boom is unsustainable
  • Integration of Economy
  • Tapping into new and under Developed regions
  • Global Dominance

 

India’s objections

  • Exact details are sketchy/not available
  • Territorial integrity of India in Kashmir
  • CPEC
  • String of Pearls
  • Indian Ocean Dominance
  • Geo Strategic implications

 

Positives for India

  • Huge economic boost
  • Integration with Eurasia
  • Infrastructure demand met
  • Trust build up with China

 

Difficulties in China’s Way

  • South china Sea Dispute
  • Senkaku island Dispute with Japan
  • India !!
  • Cultural Differences
  • Different status of Economics

FARM LOAN WAIVER

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Farm Loan Wavier

 

What has happened?

That were announced by the UP government on Tuesday [4 April 2017]:

  1. YogiAdityanath cabinet on Tuesday (4 April 2017) waived off loans worth Rs. 30,729 crore of small and marginalised farmers, who had taken a crop loan up to Rs.1 lakh each.
  2. Along with this, an additional Rs. 5, 630 crore was given to write-off NPAs of 7 lakh farmers of the state, taking the total form loan waiver amount to Rs. 36,359 crore.
  3. The UP government announced special measures to extend relief to wheat farmer.
  • The UP cabinet passed the proposal to open 5,000 new direct wheat purchase outlets with an aim to procure nearly 80.25 tonne of the grain – to rein in the blooming business of middle men, who often don’t let the benefit of MSP reach the farmers.

 

  1. Raise by Rs. 10 per quintal the MSP for wheat procurement as loading and unloading charges.
  2. The formation of a three – member committee was also announced to study how can the interest of potato farmers be accommodate and protected, who face immense hardship in case of bumper crops.
  3. Approval on the anti-romeo squad
  4. Approval the crockdown on illegal slaughterhouses.
  5. Need to build a sports complex in Ghazipur.
  6. Formulate a new industrial development policy to invite investment into the state.

 

Was the Waiver needed?

  • In the past, farmers in the state had suffered because of successive drought and hailstorm.
  • Rain-fed agriculture
  • Droughts due to El Nino,
  • Un-scientific farming practices.
  • 17% of India’s GDP = from Agriculture, problems faced by Indian Agriculture.
  • Yield risk
  • Price risk
  • No other sector can claim this level of uncertainty at almost every level of operation.

 

  • The risk of monsoon failure and infestations during crop growth.
  • The risk of lower prices after harvest.
  • Compromise in quantity and quality during storage and distribution.
  • Farmer suicides – according to census 2011, one farmer commits suicide every hour.
  • Increasing attrition rate in agriculture – 100 farmers are giving up agriculture every hour.
  • Distress migrations – causing burden on destinations (mostly urban areas).
  • Growth of unorganized credit sector-lack of access to organized sector lending many farmers resort to unorganized credit sector.

 

Paisa Kaha se Aayaga?

Fiscal burden = Stress on the exchequer

 

  • Since there is no central government assistance far waiver, Uttar Pradesh will have to find own resources to compensate the banks.
  • The loan waivers will cause an additional 36,359crore burden on the state coffers.
  • The yogi adityanath cabinet decided to float KisanRahat Bonds for raising Rs. 36,359 crore required for waiving off the loans as the fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act mandates that no state can allow its fiscal deficit to grow by beyond 3% of its GDP.
  • The state is already reeling under a debt of Rs. 3,27,470crore, the nation’s second most indebted state {acc. to a RBI’s state fiscal report up to 2016.}
  • The UP government must dedicate a mammoth one-third chunk of the annual state budget to the cause.
  • It could be difficult to handle the burden of loan waiver in a single financial year.
  • Loss of revenue from banning of slaughter houses.

 

The Politics and BAD Consequences of waiver

  • Can happen in extreme emergencies such a natural calamity.
  • But no definitely as a political tool to win elections.

 

Demand in other states

  • The UP waiver will immediately trigger demand for similar packages in other agrarian states like Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Already, in Tamil Nadu, the Madras high Court has
  • Asked the state government to waive loans of all farmers.
  • Restrained cooperative societies and banks from recovering their dues.
  • Wants the central government too to share the state government’s loan waiver burden.
  • Deterioration in credit discipline.
  • This is one reason bankers and the RBI has always vehemently opposed the idea of farm loan waiver.
  • Such a move will disrupt the credit discipline of borrowers.
  • “Today the loans will come back as the government will pay for it but when we disburse loans again then the farmers will wait for the next election expecting another waiver” the SBI chairman said.
  • Such compensations have never reached banks on time. It has only burdened the banks even more.
  • In 2014, farmer RBI governor RaghuramRajan asked “How effective these debt waivers have been?
  • Studies :
  • They have been ineffective
  • They have constrained the credit flow post waiver to the farmers.”
  • Once the banks system is shut for the farmer, he will then be forced to seek the assistance of the private moneylender, putting his life’s savings, land and honor at risk.
  • High exclusion errors in loan wavier scheme.
  • Misuse of taxpayer’s money – they honest taxpayer’s hard earned money is misused instead of channelizing the funds in enhancement of agriculture.

 

Why Yogi Adityanath’sRs. 36,359 Crore form loan waiver is not just good politics but good economics too.

  • For years, we have been made to believe that
  • Markets can regulate themselves lake decisions rationally, and doesn’t require government intervention.
  • Government should stop giving freebies (subsidies) to farmers and, of course, loan waiver is a complete no-no.
  • The move is pure politics and a very bad economics.
  • The move will inspire others to stop paying their dues to the banks, which ultimately discourage the latter from issuing loans to farmers.

 

  • There are two wrong assumptions in this argument:
  • It considers that humans don’t like to fulfil their responsibilities.
  • In rural areas, people tend to opt for loans when there is no option.
  • People mostly are fearful of the banks and no one wants to be harassed by banks.
  • Those claiming that form loan waiver is bad economics tend to treat agriculture at per with other industrial sectors.
  • Farmers of the country do not get benefits at per with industrial workers.
  • They have been a neglected lot for decades.
  • Investment don’t always have to be on physical infrastructure only.

 

The Solution = Steps that can be taken

  • Problems in Indian agriculture are structural they need long – term solutions.
  • Instead of waiving loans, governments and promise free supply of fertilizer, seeds equipment and warehouse facility.
  • Fresh funds can be made available on easier terms to the deserving farmers through nodal agencies such as National Bank for Agriculture and rural Development.
  • Restructure bad form loans before writing it off.
  • Crop insurance.
  • Pradhan MantriFasalBimaYojana
  • Improve the institutions:
  • Strengthening rural credit cooperatives
  • SHGs could act as source of credit.
  • Massive investment in area such as irrigation, water conservation, better storage facilities, market connectivity and agricultural research.
  • Improve yields + combat the vagaries of rainfall and temperature + Better prices for its produce.

CHENANI – NASHRI TUNNEL

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tunnel

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday (2 April 2017) inaugurated Chenani – Nashri Tunnel, Country’s Longest road tunnel that links Kashmir Valley with Jammu by on all – Weather route.

 

Place

 

  • Is located at an altitude of 1,200 meters (nearly 4,000 feet) in difficult Himalayan terrain.
  • Bores through the belly of the lower Himalayas between Chenani in Udhampur district and Naashri in Ramban district.
  • Is a road tunnel in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on NH-44 (former name NH1A before renumbering of all national highways).

 

National Highways 44

  • NH-44 is the longest-running major north-south National Highways in India.
  • It starts from Srinagar and terminates in KanyaKumari.
  • The highway passes through the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, UP, MP, Maharashtra, Telangana, AP, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • NH-44 was laid and is maintained by central Public works Department (CPWD).
  • It is the longest national highway in India.
  • Chenani – Nashri Tunnel which was inaugurated by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 2 April 2017, is a significant addition to this highway.
  • It has come into being by merging seven previously differently numbered national highways in full or part starting from.
  • Former NH-1A from Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Former NH-1 in Punjab and Haryana ending at Delhi.
  • Part of former NH-2 starting from Delhi and ending at Agra.
  • Former NH-3 (popularly known as Agra Bombay highway) from Agra to Gwalior.
  • Former NH-75 and former NH-26 to Jhansi and finally
  • Former NH-7 via Nagpur and Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad and Bangalore, Dharmapuri, Salem, Tiruneluli and Madurai terminating at Kanaykumari.

 

Details:

  • The work was started in 2011 and has been inaugurated on 2 April 2017.
  • Length : 9.28 Km (5.8 mi)
  • Passes through: the lower Himalayan mountain range on Jammu – Srinagar National Highway 44.

 

Other Name – Patnitop Tunnel

 

Owner – National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

 

  • It is the first tunnel in the country with a fully integrated tunnel control system.
  • Built at Rs. 3,720 Crore.
  • The tunnel will reduce the distance between Jammu and Srinagar from 41 Km to 9.2 Km
  • 1,500 engineers, geologists, skilled workers and labourers worked on the project.
  • 6,000 LED multiple colour lights will be used to break monotony.
  • GSM phone will work inside the tunnel. 118 SOS boxes have been set up, on every 150 meters on both sides.
  • BSNL, Airtel and Idea have set up facilities inside the tunnel to carry signals.
  • 118 CCTVs, one every 75 metres.
  • At 50 Km/hr. speed the tunnel is a 12 to 15 minutes drive.
  • Comprises two tubes and 29 cross – passages, with special lane for exigencies
  • Vehicle distance to be maintained at three metres.

 

Technologies:

  • Incorporates India’s first fully integrated mechanism to externally control everything
  • from the movement of vehicles.
  • to the inflow the outflow of air, and
  • even the evacuation of passengers or vehicles in distress.

 

  • 92.7 FM is mandatory for vehicles where emergency will be relayed.
  • Video surveillance System.
  • FM Rebroadcast System.
  • Entrance Detection control System.
  • Active firefighting System.
  • Smoke and heat dampeners will react quickly in fire incidents.

 

  • The heat detection system will record rises in temperature in the tunnel – result perhaps, of excessive emissions from on or more vehicles, in such, the ITCR will get in touch with staff inside the tunnel, and the offending vehicle will be pulled over into a lay-by and subsequently removed by a crane through the parallel escape tunnel.
  • Air quality monitors every 12 meters will keep a check on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, guiding exhaut fans and air purification.
  • Automated integrated Traffic control system
  • Will monitor traffic round-the-clock and
  • Overheated vehicle will be made to stop for cooling off.
  • It also features a state-of-the-art ABB ventilation system to ensure the users have access to fresh air as they drive through it.
  • ChenaniNashri tunnel is the country’s first – and the world’s sixth-road tunnel with a transverse ventilation system.
  • Fresh air coming into the main tube will push vehicle exhaust upwards and into the other tube; exhaust forms in the parallel escape tunnel to will such stale air from the main tube and throw it outside.
  • To prevent diminution of vision as a result of change in the light while going in or coming out of the tunnel the lighting inside have been adjusted a gradient of luminous strength.
  • Despite having excavated in a difficult Himalayan region, both tubes are 100% waterproof.
  • There will be no seepage of water from the ceilings or any of the walls of the tunnels.

 

Importance

  • The tunnel reduces the distance between Jammu and Srinagar by 30.11 Km (18.7 mil and cut travel time by two hours.)
  • The all-weather tunnel bypasses snowfall and avalanche prone areas in winter at places like patnitop, kud and Batote that obstruct NH-44 every winter and cause long queues of vehicles – sometimes for days at length.
  • The tunnel, bypassing snow-bound upper reaches, will reduce the journey time by two hours and provide a safe, all-weather route to commuters travelling from Jammu and Udhampur to Ramban, Banihal and Srinagar.
  • 27 lakh fuel savings a day
  • Serve as an alternative to the highways which is closed at the time of snow and rains.
  • It will help to boost the trade and commerce and tourism in the valley.
  • It will reduce traffic jams on National Highway 1A.

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VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.
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ias

VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.

VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.