One Belt One Road

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one belt one road

S.R.E.B – Silk Road Economic Belt (Overland)

M.S.R – 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Sea

 

AIM Of OBOR

Connectivity and cooperation

People’s Republic of China with Eurasia

 

Middle East, Africa, Europe

 

Via the landlocked central Asian and littoral south east asia nations.

 

What is it made of?

Highways, overland Rail router, Ports, Gas Pipelines, other infrastructure.

(Infrastructure is just a part of OROB)

 

Trains Running Already from China

Duisbury Germany Madrid – Spain

Tehran – Iran

 

Aims stated by China

Historical Heritage – Silk route

 

Cultural rejuvenation – people to people

Trade and economic co-operation

Standardized and linked trade facilities financial integration.

 

Where will the money come from?

 

Asian infrastructure investment Bank AIIB

 

India Member

 

China Development Bank – CDB

Silk Road Fund

NDB – BRICS – India member

Deals with PANTNER NATIONS

Why China needs OROB?

  • Energy Needs
  • Regional Disparities – South and eastern China laggin behind.
  • Manufacturing Boom is unsustainable
  • Integration of Economy
  • Tapping into new and under Developed regions
  • Global Dominance

 

India’s objections

  • Exact details are sketchy/not available
  • Territorial integrity of India in Kashmir
  • CPEC
  • String of Pearls
  • Indian Ocean Dominance
  • Geo Strategic implications

 

Positives for India

  • Huge economic boost
  • Integration with Eurasia
  • Infrastructure demand met
  • Trust build up with China

 

Difficulties in China’s Way

  • South china Sea Dispute
  • Senkaku island Dispute with Japan
  • India !!
  • Cultural Differences
  • Different status of Economics

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND BIOSPHERE RESERVE

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biosphere reserve

NATIONAL PARKS, WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND BIOSPHERE RESERVE

 

  • Protected Area Network in India:
  • Sanctuary: The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted.
  • National Park: The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment, like that of a sanctuary. Unlike a sanctuary, where certain rights can be allowed, in a National Park, no right are allowed. No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while in a Sanctuary, the chief wildlife warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.

National Park = 1.2%

Wildlife Sanctuary = 3.58%

  • Biosphere Reserves are the biggest entity among the three.
  • The level of restriction in the increasing order is Biosphere Reserves > Wildlife Sanctuaries > National Parks.

 

  1. Bandhavgarh National Park
  • Located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968, with an area of 105 km2
  • The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and katni and totals 437 km2
  • The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is one of the highest known in India.

 

  1. Bandipur National Park
  • Located in the south Indian state of Karnataka. It was once a private humting reserve for the maharaja of the kingdom of mysore.
  • The park an area of 87 km2, protecting several species of India`s endangered wildlife.
  • Park features leopards, elephants, sloth bears, wild boars and wild dogs.

 

  1. Blackbuck National Park
  • Blackbuck National Park at velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat state, India.
  • It is spread over an area of 34.08 km2, which was primarily a “vidi” (grass land) of the maharaja of the princely state of Bhavnagar.
  • The park primarily includes Blackbuck, wolves, houbara bustard, hyenar and lesser flaricans with forces, jackals and jungle cats as the main carniores species.

 

  1. Corbett National Park
  • Situated in kumaon – Uttarakhand, Corbett National park comprises 520.8km2 area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions and others.
  • The park acts as a protected area for the endangered Bengal tiger of India.
  • Pioneer is ecotourism, Corbett National Park has 25 reptile species, 580 bird species, 50 species of mamnals and 110 tree species. It was also the first park to launch a project tiger conservation initative.

 

  1. Keoladeo National park
  • This is another world heritage site situated in Bharatpur region of Rajasthan
  • It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971
  • It is famous fear the various species of birds and migratory bird like Siberian ranes.

Note:- world heritage site decide by (UNESCO) head quarter (paries).

  1. Gir National Park
  • The Gir Forest National Park and wildlife sanctuary established in 1965, with a total area of 1412 km2 In Gujarat
  • It is the sole home of the Asiatic lions and is considered to be one of the most important protected areas in asia duo to its supported species.
  • The count of 2,375 distinct fauna species of Gir includes about 38 species of mammals, around 300 species of birds and around 37 species of reptiles.

 

  1. Hemis National Park
  • Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park in the eastern Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India
  • Hemi is a 4,400 km2 park and is presently the largest national park is south Asia
  • The park is home to a viable breeding population of about 200 snow leopards, especially in the Rumbak catchment area.

 

  1. Kaziranga National park
  • Kaziranga national park is located in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India.
  • A world heritage site, the 430 km2 park hosts two – thirds of the world`s Great one horned rhinocerses.
  • Kaziranga is recognized as an important Bird area by Birdlife international for conservation of avifaunal species.

 

  1. Nagar – hole National Park
  • Nagarhole national park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National park), is a national park located in kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in south India. This park was declared the thirty seventh project tiger reserve in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

 

  1. Ranthambore National Park
  • Ranthambore national park is situated is Sawai Madhopur district of south eastern Rajasthan.
  • National park area: 275 km2 392 km2 including buffer zone
  • Besides tigers, the reserve has thriving bird population with more than 270 different species of bird here.

 

  1. Simlipal National Park

 

  • SimlipalNational Park is a national park and an elephant reserve situated in the mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Orissa.
  • The park is a treasure house of 1076 species of plants belonging to 102 families 96 species of orchids have also been identified here.

 

  1. Sunderbans National Park

 

  • The sunderbans national park (1,330.12 km2) is a national park, tiger reserve and a biosphere reserve in India. It is located at south 24 parganas west Bengal India.
  • The mangrove vegetation of sundarbans consists of 64 plant species
  • The sundarbans forest in home to more than 400 tigers, the royal Bengal tigers have developed a unique characteristic of sumining in the saline waters, and are famous for their men eating tandencies.

 

  1. Periyar National Park
  • Situated on the Western Ghats, and touching the borders of Tamil Nadu, this national park in Kerala.
  • This one is also a project Tiger Reserve of the Country, and also offer jeep safaris for its tourists.
  • Spaning over 350 sq. Km. Periyar National Park is known for encompassing two majestic mammals Elephants and Tiger.
  • Tourists can enjoy rich flora and Fuuna of the park by taking boat cruise over the picturesque periyar lake.

 

  1. Valley of Flowers

 

  • Valley of flowers National Park is an Indian National Park, located is west Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand.
  • Spanning over an area of 87.5 KMs, the valley of Flower was declared a National Park in the year 1982. This Reserve is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserve Since 2004.
  • It is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora. This richly diverse are is also home to rare endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, Musk deer, brown bear, red fox and blue sheep.

 

  1. Manas Sanctuary, Barpeta (Assam)

One-horned rhinoceros, gaur, elephant, wild buffalo.

 

  1. Namdapha Sanctuary – Tirap (Ar. Pradesh)

Elephant, tiger, panther, wild buffalo.

 

  1. Pachinarhi Sanctuary – Hoshangabad (M.P)

Barking deer, Bison, bear, tiger.

 

  1. Chandraprabha Sanctuary, Varanasi (UP)

Tiger, Panther, Sambar, Sloth bear, Peafowl.

 

  1. Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Ramn of Kutchch. (Guj)

Wild ass, wolf, nilgai, Chinkara

 

  1. Bhimbandh Sanctuary, Monghyr (Bihar)

Leopard, tiger, wild boar, wolf.

 

  1. Dudhwa National Park, Lakhimpur Kheri (U.P)

Barking deer, Chital, Sloth bear, tiger, Panther.

 

  1. Hazaribagh Sanctuary, Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)

Chital, Niglai, Sambar, Tiger

 

  1. Silent valley National Park (Kerala)

Lion – Tailed Macaque

 

  1. Ghandhi Sagar Sanctuary, Mandsaur (M.P)

Barking deer, Chinkara, Chital.

 

  1. Tal Chapar National Park, Churu, Rajasthan

Black – buck

 

  1. Sariska National Park – Alwar – Rajasthan

Tiger, Crocodiles, Nilgai, Chital, Chausingha

 

  1. Kanha National Park
  • Kanha is a popular Tiger Reserve of India located in Madhya Pradesh was created in 1974 under Project Tiger.
  • In two districts Mandla and Balaghat Kanha National Park houses the largest population of Tigers in India.
  • With brilliant flora and forest area, this park is famous for its sloth bear, leopard wild dog and of course the Bengal tiger.
  • This was the park that the central India Barasingha, also known as the hard ground barasingha, was brought back from the virtual edge of extinction.
  • The lush Sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha provided inspiration to Rudyard kipling for this famous novel “Jungle Book”.

 

  1. Great Himalayan National Park (UNESCO)

Himanchal Pradesh

Blue Sheep, Snow leopard, Musk Deer.

 

  1. Rajaji National Park

Uttarakhand (Elephants, Tigers)

 

  1. Keibul Lamjao National Park

Manipur

Only floating park in the world, famous for sangai of Dancing Durs.

 

  1. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

Kerala – Tiger

 

  1. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Kerala – Tiger

 

  1. Dachigam National Park

J & K = Hangal/Kashmiri Stag

 

  1. Mouling National Park

Arunachal Pradesh = Red Panda

 

  1. Namdapha National Park

Arunachal Pradesh (Red Giant flying squirrel)

 

  1. Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh = Tiger

           

  1. Betla National Park

Jharkhand = bison, elephant, tiger, leopard.

 

  1. Palamu National Park

Jharkhand = Tiger

 

  1. Daima Wildlife Sanctuary

Jharkhand = Elephants

 

  1. Indravati National Park

Chhattisgarh = Tiger & wild Buffalo

 

  1. Nagarjuma National Park

Andhra Pradesh = Tiger

 

  1. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary

Goa

 

  1. Banerghatta National Park

Karnataka – Tiger

 

  1. Chandra Prabha National Park

UttarParadesh

 

  1. Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary

Rann of Kutchh – Wild Ass

 

BIOSPHERE RESERVES

 

Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.

 

The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserve of India which protect larger area of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or Preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.

 

Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions and their ways of life.

 

  1. 2008 –           Great Rann of Kutch            –           Gujarat
  2. 1989 –           Gulf of Mannar                     –           Tamil Nadu
  3. 1989 –           Sundarbans                           –           West Bengal
  4. 2009 –           Cold Desert                           –           Himachal Pradesh
  5. 1988 –           Nanda Devi                           –           Uttarakhand
  6. 1986 –           Nilgiri Biosphere                  –           Tamil Nadu Kerala &

Karnataka

  1. 1998 –           Dihang – Dibang                  –           Arunachal Pradesh
  2. 1999 –           Pachmarhi Biosphere          –           Madhya Pradesh

Reserve

  1. 2010 –           Seshalam Hills                      –           Andra Pradesh
  2. 1994 –           Simlipal                                 –           Odisha
  3. 2005 –           Achanakamar                        –           Madhya Pradesh

Amar Kantak                                                                        Chhattisgarh

  1. 1989 –           Manas                                                –           Assam
  2. 2000             –           Khangchendzonga               –           Sikkim
  3. 2001 –           Agasthyamalai                      –           Kerala Tamil Nadu
  4. 1989 –           Great Nicobar                      –            Andanan& Nicobar

biosphere Reserve

  1. 1988 –           Nakrek                                   –           Meghalaya
  2. 1997 –           Dibru-Saikhowa                   –           Assam
  3. 2011 –           Panna                                     –           Madhya Pradesh

 

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary

 

The famous Bharatpur Bird sanctuary also known as keoladea Ghana National Park is situated in Rajasthan.

 

Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Sultanpur bird sanctuary is home for several colorful winged migratory species, located at Gurgaon district of Haryana.

 

Ranganthittu Bird sanctuary

Situated near to the banks of the Kaveri river in Karnataka.

 

Kumarakon Bird Sanctuary

Situated at in land of attraction kerala, near to the famous Vembanad lake. It offers a home to a large number of migratory bird like flycatcher, Teal, Siberian Stock, Crane, Parrots and wood Beetle.

 

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

The vedanthangal bird sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, Situated in Tamil Nadu.

 

Kaundiya Bird Sanctuary

Near chittor in Andhra Pradesh.

Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary

Located near puri in Orissa. Chilka lake serves as a bird sanctuary and is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds in India.

 

Mayani Bird Sanctuary

Situated in Satara district of Maharashtra. Many migratory birds pass through the area, such as flamingos from Siberia come in large numbers.

 

Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat

Largest wetland bird sanctuary in Gujarat, and one on the largest in India, spot birds like flamingos, pelicans, spoonbills, Avocets, coots, Pintails.

FARM LOAN WAIVER

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Farm Loan Wavier

 

What has happened?

That were announced by the UP government on Tuesday [4 April 2017]:

  1. YogiAdityanath cabinet on Tuesday (4 April 2017) waived off loans worth Rs. 30,729 crore of small and marginalised farmers, who had taken a crop loan up to Rs.1 lakh each.
  2. Along with this, an additional Rs. 5, 630 crore was given to write-off NPAs of 7 lakh farmers of the state, taking the total form loan waiver amount to Rs. 36,359 crore.
  3. The UP government announced special measures to extend relief to wheat farmer.
  • The UP cabinet passed the proposal to open 5,000 new direct wheat purchase outlets with an aim to procure nearly 80.25 tonne of the grain – to rein in the blooming business of middle men, who often don’t let the benefit of MSP reach the farmers.

 

  1. Raise by Rs. 10 per quintal the MSP for wheat procurement as loading and unloading charges.
  2. The formation of a three – member committee was also announced to study how can the interest of potato farmers be accommodate and protected, who face immense hardship in case of bumper crops.
  3. Approval on the anti-romeo squad
  4. Approval the crockdown on illegal slaughterhouses.
  5. Need to build a sports complex in Ghazipur.
  6. Formulate a new industrial development policy to invite investment into the state.

 

Was the Waiver needed?

  • In the past, farmers in the state had suffered because of successive drought and hailstorm.
  • Rain-fed agriculture
  • Droughts due to El Nino,
  • Un-scientific farming practices.
  • 17% of India’s GDP = from Agriculture, problems faced by Indian Agriculture.
  • Yield risk
  • Price risk
  • No other sector can claim this level of uncertainty at almost every level of operation.

 

  • The risk of monsoon failure and infestations during crop growth.
  • The risk of lower prices after harvest.
  • Compromise in quantity and quality during storage and distribution.
  • Farmer suicides – according to census 2011, one farmer commits suicide every hour.
  • Increasing attrition rate in agriculture – 100 farmers are giving up agriculture every hour.
  • Distress migrations – causing burden on destinations (mostly urban areas).
  • Growth of unorganized credit sector-lack of access to organized sector lending many farmers resort to unorganized credit sector.

 

Paisa Kaha se Aayaga?

Fiscal burden = Stress on the exchequer

 

  • Since there is no central government assistance far waiver, Uttar Pradesh will have to find own resources to compensate the banks.
  • The loan waivers will cause an additional 36,359crore burden on the state coffers.
  • The yogi adityanath cabinet decided to float KisanRahat Bonds for raising Rs. 36,359 crore required for waiving off the loans as the fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act mandates that no state can allow its fiscal deficit to grow by beyond 3% of its GDP.
  • The state is already reeling under a debt of Rs. 3,27,470crore, the nation’s second most indebted state {acc. to a RBI’s state fiscal report up to 2016.}
  • The UP government must dedicate a mammoth one-third chunk of the annual state budget to the cause.
  • It could be difficult to handle the burden of loan waiver in a single financial year.
  • Loss of revenue from banning of slaughter houses.

 

The Politics and BAD Consequences of waiver

  • Can happen in extreme emergencies such a natural calamity.
  • But no definitely as a political tool to win elections.

 

Demand in other states

  • The UP waiver will immediately trigger demand for similar packages in other agrarian states like Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Already, in Tamil Nadu, the Madras high Court has
  • Asked the state government to waive loans of all farmers.
  • Restrained cooperative societies and banks from recovering their dues.
  • Wants the central government too to share the state government’s loan waiver burden.
  • Deterioration in credit discipline.
  • This is one reason bankers and the RBI has always vehemently opposed the idea of farm loan waiver.
  • Such a move will disrupt the credit discipline of borrowers.
  • “Today the loans will come back as the government will pay for it but when we disburse loans again then the farmers will wait for the next election expecting another waiver” the SBI chairman said.
  • Such compensations have never reached banks on time. It has only burdened the banks even more.
  • In 2014, farmer RBI governor RaghuramRajan asked “How effective these debt waivers have been?
  • Studies :
  • They have been ineffective
  • They have constrained the credit flow post waiver to the farmers.”
  • Once the banks system is shut for the farmer, he will then be forced to seek the assistance of the private moneylender, putting his life’s savings, land and honor at risk.
  • High exclusion errors in loan wavier scheme.
  • Misuse of taxpayer’s money – they honest taxpayer’s hard earned money is misused instead of channelizing the funds in enhancement of agriculture.

 

Why Yogi Adityanath’sRs. 36,359 Crore form loan waiver is not just good politics but good economics too.

  • For years, we have been made to believe that
  • Markets can regulate themselves lake decisions rationally, and doesn’t require government intervention.
  • Government should stop giving freebies (subsidies) to farmers and, of course, loan waiver is a complete no-no.
  • The move is pure politics and a very bad economics.
  • The move will inspire others to stop paying their dues to the banks, which ultimately discourage the latter from issuing loans to farmers.

 

  • There are two wrong assumptions in this argument:
  • It considers that humans don’t like to fulfil their responsibilities.
  • In rural areas, people tend to opt for loans when there is no option.
  • People mostly are fearful of the banks and no one wants to be harassed by banks.
  • Those claiming that form loan waiver is bad economics tend to treat agriculture at per with other industrial sectors.
  • Farmers of the country do not get benefits at per with industrial workers.
  • They have been a neglected lot for decades.
  • Investment don’t always have to be on physical infrastructure only.

 

The Solution = Steps that can be taken

  • Problems in Indian agriculture are structural they need long – term solutions.
  • Instead of waiving loans, governments and promise free supply of fertilizer, seeds equipment and warehouse facility.
  • Fresh funds can be made available on easier terms to the deserving farmers through nodal agencies such as National Bank for Agriculture and rural Development.
  • Restructure bad form loans before writing it off.
  • Crop insurance.
  • Pradhan MantriFasalBimaYojana
  • Improve the institutions:
  • Strengthening rural credit cooperatives
  • SHGs could act as source of credit.
  • Massive investment in area such as irrigation, water conservation, better storage facilities, market connectivity and agricultural research.
  • Improve yields + combat the vagaries of rainfall and temperature + Better prices for its produce.

CHENANI – NASHRI TUNNEL

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tunnel

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday (2 April 2017) inaugurated Chenani – Nashri Tunnel, Country’s Longest road tunnel that links Kashmir Valley with Jammu by on all – Weather route.

 

Place

 

  • Is located at an altitude of 1,200 meters (nearly 4,000 feet) in difficult Himalayan terrain.
  • Bores through the belly of the lower Himalayas between Chenani in Udhampur district and Naashri in Ramban district.
  • Is a road tunnel in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on NH-44 (former name NH1A before renumbering of all national highways).

 

National Highways 44

  • NH-44 is the longest-running major north-south National Highways in India.
  • It starts from Srinagar and terminates in KanyaKumari.
  • The highway passes through the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, UP, MP, Maharashtra, Telangana, AP, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • NH-44 was laid and is maintained by central Public works Department (CPWD).
  • It is the longest national highway in India.
  • Chenani – Nashri Tunnel which was inaugurated by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 2 April 2017, is a significant addition to this highway.
  • It has come into being by merging seven previously differently numbered national highways in full or part starting from.
  • Former NH-1A from Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Former NH-1 in Punjab and Haryana ending at Delhi.
  • Part of former NH-2 starting from Delhi and ending at Agra.
  • Former NH-3 (popularly known as Agra Bombay highway) from Agra to Gwalior.
  • Former NH-75 and former NH-26 to Jhansi and finally
  • Former NH-7 via Nagpur and Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad and Bangalore, Dharmapuri, Salem, Tiruneluli and Madurai terminating at Kanaykumari.

 

Details:

  • The work was started in 2011 and has been inaugurated on 2 April 2017.
  • Length : 9.28 Km (5.8 mi)
  • Passes through: the lower Himalayan mountain range on Jammu – Srinagar National Highway 44.

 

Other Name – Patnitop Tunnel

 

Owner – National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

 

  • It is the first tunnel in the country with a fully integrated tunnel control system.
  • Built at Rs. 3,720 Crore.
  • The tunnel will reduce the distance between Jammu and Srinagar from 41 Km to 9.2 Km
  • 1,500 engineers, geologists, skilled workers and labourers worked on the project.
  • 6,000 LED multiple colour lights will be used to break monotony.
  • GSM phone will work inside the tunnel. 118 SOS boxes have been set up, on every 150 meters on both sides.
  • BSNL, Airtel and Idea have set up facilities inside the tunnel to carry signals.
  • 118 CCTVs, one every 75 metres.
  • At 50 Km/hr. speed the tunnel is a 12 to 15 minutes drive.
  • Comprises two tubes and 29 cross – passages, with special lane for exigencies
  • Vehicle distance to be maintained at three metres.

 

Technologies:

  • Incorporates India’s first fully integrated mechanism to externally control everything
  • from the movement of vehicles.
  • to the inflow the outflow of air, and
  • even the evacuation of passengers or vehicles in distress.

 

  • 92.7 FM is mandatory for vehicles where emergency will be relayed.
  • Video surveillance System.
  • FM Rebroadcast System.
  • Entrance Detection control System.
  • Active firefighting System.
  • Smoke and heat dampeners will react quickly in fire incidents.

 

  • The heat detection system will record rises in temperature in the tunnel – result perhaps, of excessive emissions from on or more vehicles, in such, the ITCR will get in touch with staff inside the tunnel, and the offending vehicle will be pulled over into a lay-by and subsequently removed by a crane through the parallel escape tunnel.
  • Air quality monitors every 12 meters will keep a check on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, guiding exhaut fans and air purification.
  • Automated integrated Traffic control system
  • Will monitor traffic round-the-clock and
  • Overheated vehicle will be made to stop for cooling off.
  • It also features a state-of-the-art ABB ventilation system to ensure the users have access to fresh air as they drive through it.
  • ChenaniNashri tunnel is the country’s first – and the world’s sixth-road tunnel with a transverse ventilation system.
  • Fresh air coming into the main tube will push vehicle exhaust upwards and into the other tube; exhaust forms in the parallel escape tunnel to will such stale air from the main tube and throw it outside.
  • To prevent diminution of vision as a result of change in the light while going in or coming out of the tunnel the lighting inside have been adjusted a gradient of luminous strength.
  • Despite having excavated in a difficult Himalayan region, both tubes are 100% waterproof.
  • There will be no seepage of water from the ceilings or any of the walls of the tunnels.

 

Importance

  • The tunnel reduces the distance between Jammu and Srinagar by 30.11 Km (18.7 mil and cut travel time by two hours.)
  • The all-weather tunnel bypasses snowfall and avalanche prone areas in winter at places like patnitop, kud and Batote that obstruct NH-44 every winter and cause long queues of vehicles – sometimes for days at length.
  • The tunnel, bypassing snow-bound upper reaches, will reduce the journey time by two hours and provide a safe, all-weather route to commuters travelling from Jammu and Udhampur to Ramban, Banihal and Srinagar.
  • 27 lakh fuel savings a day
  • Serve as an alternative to the highways which is closed at the time of snow and rains.
  • It will help to boost the trade and commerce and tourism in the valley.
  • It will reduce traffic jams on National Highway 1A.

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VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.
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ias

VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.

VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.

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VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.

VEDANTA IAS ACADEMY is India’s well-known best ias academy in delhi,Top ias coaching Institute in delhi preparing candidates for the Civil Services Examination at all the three levels – Preliminary Test, Main Examination and Personality Test.The Institute is a unit of VEDANTA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS and was founded in 1997 by Mr. S. P. Verma who is well known Scholar and Social worker.

Since its inception the Institute has helped over good strength of students to enter the Civil Services including I.A.S., I.F.S., I.P.S. and States Civil Services.

Every year some of our students have secured positions top rank among successful candidates. The teaching faculty of the Institute has been drawn from highly qualified and experienced teachers of the various reputed Institutions from India and abroad.

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