NATIONAL PARKS, WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND BIOSPHERE RESERVE
- Protected Area Network in India:
- Sanctuary: The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted.
- National Park: The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment, like that of a sanctuary. Unlike a sanctuary, where certain rights can be allowed, in a National Park, no right are allowed. No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while in a Sanctuary, the chief wildlife warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.
National Park = 1.2%
Wildlife Sanctuary = 3.58%
- Biosphere Reserves are the biggest entity among the three.
- The level of restriction in the increasing order is Biosphere Reserves > Wildlife Sanctuaries > National Parks.
- Bandhavgarh National Park
- Located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968, with an area of 105 km2
- The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and katni and totals 437 km2
- The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is one of the highest known in India.
- Bandipur National Park
- Located in the south Indian state of Karnataka. It was once a private humting reserve for the maharaja of the kingdom of mysore.
- The park an area of 87 km2, protecting several species of India`s endangered wildlife.
- Park features leopards, elephants, sloth bears, wild boars and wild dogs.
- Blackbuck National Park
- Blackbuck National Park at velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat state, India.
- It is spread over an area of 34.08 km2, which was primarily a “vidi” (grass land) of the maharaja of the princely state of Bhavnagar.
- The park primarily includes Blackbuck, wolves, houbara bustard, hyenar and lesser flaricans with forces, jackals and jungle cats as the main carniores species.
- Corbett National Park
- Situated in kumaon – Uttarakhand, Corbett National park comprises 520.8km2 area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions and others.
- The park acts as a protected area for the endangered Bengal tiger of India.
- Pioneer is ecotourism, Corbett National Park has 25 reptile species, 580 bird species, 50 species of mamnals and 110 tree species. It was also the first park to launch a project tiger conservation initative.
- Keoladeo National park
- This is another world heritage site situated in Bharatpur region of Rajasthan
- It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971
- It is famous fear the various species of birds and migratory bird like Siberian ranes.
Note:- world heritage site decide by (UNESCO) head quarter (paries).
- Gir National Park
- The Gir Forest National Park and wildlife sanctuary established in 1965, with a total area of 1412 km2 In Gujarat
- It is the sole home of the Asiatic lions and is considered to be one of the most important protected areas in asia duo to its supported species.
- The count of 2,375 distinct fauna species of Gir includes about 38 species of mammals, around 300 species of birds and around 37 species of reptiles.
- Hemis National Park
- Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park in the eastern Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India
- Hemi is a 4,400 km2 park and is presently the largest national park is south Asia
- The park is home to a viable breeding population of about 200 snow leopards, especially in the Rumbak catchment area.
- Kaziranga National park
- Kaziranga national park is located in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India.
- A world heritage site, the 430 km2 park hosts two – thirds of the world`s Great one horned rhinocerses.
- Kaziranga is recognized as an important Bird area by Birdlife international for conservation of avifaunal species.
- Nagar – hole National Park
- Nagarhole national park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National park), is a national park located in kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in south India. This park was declared the thirty seventh project tiger reserve in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
- Ranthambore National Park
- Ranthambore national park is situated is Sawai Madhopur district of south eastern Rajasthan.
- National park area: 275 km2 392 km2 including buffer zone
- Besides tigers, the reserve has thriving bird population with more than 270 different species of bird here.
- Simlipal National Park
- SimlipalNational Park is a national park and an elephant reserve situated in the mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Orissa.
- The park is a treasure house of 1076 species of plants belonging to 102 families 96 species of orchids have also been identified here.
- Sunderbans National Park
- The sunderbans national park (1,330.12 km2) is a national park, tiger reserve and a biosphere reserve in India. It is located at south 24 parganas west Bengal India.
- The mangrove vegetation of sundarbans consists of 64 plant species
- The sundarbans forest in home to more than 400 tigers, the royal Bengal tigers have developed a unique characteristic of sumining in the saline waters, and are famous for their men eating tandencies.
- Periyar National Park
- Situated on the Western Ghats, and touching the borders of Tamil Nadu, this national park in Kerala.
- This one is also a project Tiger Reserve of the Country, and also offer jeep safaris for its tourists.
- Spaning over 350 sq. Km. Periyar National Park is known for encompassing two majestic mammals Elephants and Tiger.
- Tourists can enjoy rich flora and Fuuna of the park by taking boat cruise over the picturesque periyar lake.
- Valley of Flowers
- Valley of flowers National Park is an Indian National Park, located is west Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand.
- Spanning over an area of 87.5 KMs, the valley of Flower was declared a National Park in the year 1982. This Reserve is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserve Since 2004.
- It is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora. This richly diverse are is also home to rare endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, Musk deer, brown bear, red fox and blue sheep.
- Manas Sanctuary, Barpeta (Assam)
One-horned rhinoceros, gaur, elephant, wild buffalo.
- Namdapha Sanctuary – Tirap (Ar. Pradesh)
Elephant, tiger, panther, wild buffalo.
- Pachinarhi Sanctuary – Hoshangabad (M.P)
Barking deer, Bison, bear, tiger.
- Chandraprabha Sanctuary, Varanasi (UP)
Tiger, Panther, Sambar, Sloth bear, Peafowl.
- Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Ramn of Kutchch. (Guj)
Wild ass, wolf, nilgai, Chinkara
- Bhimbandh Sanctuary, Monghyr (Bihar)
Leopard, tiger, wild boar, wolf.
- Dudhwa National Park, Lakhimpur Kheri (U.P)
Barking deer, Chital, Sloth bear, tiger, Panther.
- Hazaribagh Sanctuary, Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)
Chital, Niglai, Sambar, Tiger
- Silent valley National Park (Kerala)
Lion – Tailed Macaque
- Ghandhi Sagar Sanctuary, Mandsaur (M.P)
Barking deer, Chinkara, Chital.
- Tal Chapar National Park, Churu, Rajasthan
Black – buck
- Sariska National Park – Alwar – Rajasthan
Tiger, Crocodiles, Nilgai, Chital, Chausingha
- Kanha National Park
- Kanha is a popular Tiger Reserve of India located in Madhya Pradesh was created in 1974 under Project Tiger.
- In two districts Mandla and Balaghat Kanha National Park houses the largest population of Tigers in India.
- With brilliant flora and forest area, this park is famous for its sloth bear, leopard wild dog and of course the Bengal tiger.
- This was the park that the central India Barasingha, also known as the hard ground barasingha, was brought back from the virtual edge of extinction.
- The lush Sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha provided inspiration to Rudyard kipling for this famous novel “Jungle Book”.
- Great Himalayan National Park (UNESCO)
Blue Sheep, Snow leopard, Musk Deer.
- Rajaji National Park
Uttarakhand (Elephants, Tigers)
- Keibul Lamjao National Park
Only floating park in the world, famous for sangai of Dancing Durs.
- Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
Kerala – Tiger
- Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
Kerala – Tiger
- Dachigam National Park
J & K = Hangal/Kashmiri Stag
- Mouling National Park
Arunachal Pradesh = Red Panda
- Namdapha National Park
Arunachal Pradesh (Red Giant flying squirrel)
- Panna National Park
Madhya Pradesh = Tiger
- Betla National Park
Jharkhand = bison, elephant, tiger, leopard.
- Palamu National Park
Jharkhand = Tiger
- Daima Wildlife Sanctuary
Jharkhand = Elephants
- Indravati National Park
Chhattisgarh = Tiger & wild Buffalo
- Nagarjuma National Park
Andhra Pradesh = Tiger
- Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
- Banerghatta National Park
Karnataka – Tiger
- Chandra Prabha National Park
- Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Rann of Kutchh – Wild Ass
Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.
The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserve of India which protect larger area of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or Preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.
Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions and their ways of life.
- 2008 – Great Rann of Kutch – Gujarat
- 1989 – Gulf of Mannar – Tamil Nadu
- 1989 – Sundarbans – West Bengal
- 2009 – Cold Desert – Himachal Pradesh
- 1988 – Nanda Devi – Uttarakhand
- 1986 – Nilgiri Biosphere – Tamil Nadu Kerala &
- 1998 – Dihang – Dibang – Arunachal Pradesh
- 1999 – Pachmarhi Biosphere – Madhya Pradesh
- 2010 – Seshalam Hills – Andra Pradesh
- 1994 – Simlipal – Odisha
- 2005 – Achanakamar – Madhya Pradesh
Amar Kantak Chhattisgarh
- 1989 – Manas – Assam
- 2000 – Khangchendzonga – Sikkim
- 2001 – Agasthyamalai – Kerala Tamil Nadu
- 1989 – Great Nicobar – Andanan& Nicobar
- 1988 – Nakrek – Meghalaya
- 1997 – Dibru-Saikhowa – Assam
- 2011 – Panna – Madhya Pradesh
Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary
The famous Bharatpur Bird sanctuary also known as keoladea Ghana National Park is situated in Rajasthan.
Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary
Sultanpur bird sanctuary is home for several colorful winged migratory species, located at Gurgaon district of Haryana.
Ranganthittu Bird sanctuary
Situated near to the banks of the Kaveri river in Karnataka.
Kumarakon Bird Sanctuary
Situated at in land of attraction kerala, near to the famous Vembanad lake. It offers a home to a large number of migratory bird like flycatcher, Teal, Siberian Stock, Crane, Parrots and wood Beetle.
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
The vedanthangal bird sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, Situated in Tamil Nadu.
Kaundiya Bird Sanctuary
Near chittor in Andhra Pradesh.
Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary
Located near puri in Orissa. Chilka lake serves as a bird sanctuary and is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds in India.
Mayani Bird Sanctuary
Situated in Satara district of Maharashtra. Many migratory birds pass through the area, such as flamingos from Siberia come in large numbers.
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat
Largest wetland bird sanctuary in Gujarat, and one on the largest in India, spot birds like flamingos, pelicans, spoonbills, Avocets, coots, Pintails.